In recent years, the outbreak of various food safety problems has aroused widespread concern in the society. Because food safety is directly related to human life and health, every consumer wants to be able to buy healthy, safe and safe food, and to grasp the full information of food safety. In order to guarantee the health of consumers and the demand for social stability and economic development, the importance of monitoring food safety through a visual food supply chain management system is becoming more and more important. With the development of information technology, people have realized the exchange of electronic data through the establishment of EDI platform. Radio frequency identification (RFID), as a new identification technology, makes the food safety monitoring more mature.
2 establish a supply chain management system based on RFID
2.1 tracking and tracing system model based on RFID
RFID based tracking and traceability system models include RFID data acquisition system, RFID information service system and application software (such as logistics decision system, etc.).
The working principle of the model is as follows:
(1) through the wireless communication mode of RFID, the data stored on the electronic label is transmitted to the reader.
(2) the data collected by the reader is filtered out by the middleware, and then the sequence of events is generated and transmitted to the enterprise application software.
(3) enterprise application software can access information related to products through Internet or local area network access to information servers, which are indicated by electronic label information. The information service system of this model is relatively centralized, maintained by a product manufacturer or a third party organization, and can establish a relatively closed system for tracking and tracing the product of a single enterprise. This is in line with the development of the domestic traceability system at this stage.
3.2 food supply chain management system
Corresponding to the above models, RFID food supply chain management system is generally made up of RFID tags / readers, RFID middleware and RFID application system.
(1) RFID tag / reader. The RFID label is attached to the food material, the semi-finished product, the outer packing surface of the finished product and the freight tray, which records the entity's attribute information and related operation information. The RFID reader is set in the key node of the supply chain to read the information in the food RFID label in real time and transmit it together with the reader's own attributes and the reading time to the RFID middleware.
(2) RFID middleware. RFID middleware is responsible for the information interaction and management of RFID hardware and supporting equipment, and as a bridge of hardware and software integration, the information exchange between the upper and the upper complex application systems is completed. The middleware is connected to the RFID reader and receives the RFID data from the reader. It has the functions of data collection, filtering, integration and transmission, in order to transmit the correct object information to the back end application system, and then reduce the complexity of architecture and maintenance.
(3) RFID application system. The RFID application system is an information management system integrated with RFID data and business logic in the food supply chain. It can perform pre established business logic for the virtual data objects coming from RFID middleware. We apply this model to the food industry to form a tool to integrate food supply chain.
The RFID system has three main functions: information collection, information transmission and information management. Information collection is the precondition of realizing information flow, and information transfer realizes the continuity of information flow. The effective management and application of information has realized the value of information flow. These functions run through all links of production, warehousing, transportation and sales, and can fully monitor and manage the food supply chain. In the food supply chain system, the RFID reader is set up for the material base, the processing plant, the food warehouse, the sales network and other links. After filtering and integration of RFID middleware, label information is transmitted to the information control center. The information control center, as the public information service subsystem in the whole system, controls all the information in the system, and the control information is transferred from the middleware to the various links in order to complete the appropriate operation.
In view of the functions and characteristics of every link in the food supply chain system, we should choose different RFID Tags:
(1) in the process of production and processing, each batch of raw materials transported from the raw material base to the processing plant is accompanied by a RFID label, which mainly records the related information of production breeding, such as the number of farm farms, the delivery time, the delivery of batch and so on, which are related to the internal information system database of the production enterprises. After the end of production and processing, the processing information of the node should also be written on the label, then packed and packed, placed on a tray with a RFID label, for transportation and warehousing.
(2) in the food storage link, the storage and the storage of the RFID tags on the tray are scanned by scanning. The system can clearly know the mark, place, history, destination, validity and other information of the container and even the single piece goods on the tray. By automatically scanning RFID tags, food inventory can be accurately monitored. When the stock is close to or less than the safe stock, the system will automatically make a prompt, and make the order plan quickly according to the order model, and send it to the processing plant after the inventory manager confirms it.
(3) in food distribution scheduling, the system distributes food supply according to the historical sales data of various sales outlets and real-time feedback sales information. After the food arrived at various sales outlets, it was scanned into the sales storehouse and the warehousing information was established. When food stocks are not replenish in time, they can also send information to other sales outlets to allocate excess stock.
(4) in the food sales link, the sales staff will scan the video out of the library, and in the actual sales process, establish the data link between the individual food and the customer, and feed back the food sales information to the food warehouse in real time, in order to make the plan decision of making the goods and replenishing goods.
4 Analysis of system advantages and problems based on RFID Technology
4.1 Comparison between RFID and other tracking techniques
At present, there are not many ways to manage food supply chain. It is difficult for traditional technology to monitor the whole system in real time. Bar code technology has been widely used in the food industry, and the bar code technology has developed rapidly in the past several decades, and the two-dimensional bar code has been developed on the basis of the original one - dimensional bar code. But the size of one dimension bar code is relatively large, and it is not suitable for use on smaller items, and it is not capable of fault tolerance. The two-dimensional bar code belongs to the category of electronic identification, which improves the automatic acquisition ability of identity identification, but its acquisition front is an optical signal reading device, which is easily affected by the physical environment such as light, fog and dirty pollution. At the same time, the bar code technology can only use artificial methods to read close range, can not achieve real-time and rapid access to mass information of large quantities of food, and it can not provide real-time record of food environment information on the circulation link.
For its part, RFID has obvious advantages in many aspects. Read number, the bar code read only one time, RFID can read multiple RFID label data at the same time; long distance read, bar code read need light, RFID tag without light can read or update; data capacity, RFID storage capacity more than bar code; read and write ability, bar code data Non - update, RFID chip memory of the electronic data can be read and write repeatedly; reading convenience, bar code read need to be able to be clearly seen, RFID chip can be very thin, hidden in the package can still read the data; data correctness, bar code needs to be read manually, it is easy to cause human error, the RFID tag inside the label All data are transmitted through electromagnetic waves, which can greatly reduce the possibility of such errors.
Combined with the special requirements of RFID applied in food supply chain, RFID tags have wider applicability. For example, the use of RFID logo in the breeding stage can guarantee real-time, automatic data acquisition and accuracy in bad environment, and RFID can make the slaughtering process transparent in the slaughtering process. Management, sales and consumers can understand the information of slaughtering process in real time, accurately and intuitively. In addition, for meat, fruits and vegetables, such as production, processing, storage transportation, retail and other links to the temperature requirements of more stringent food, RFID label can have temperature, humidity sensing technology, so that it can identify objects and can record body temperature changes. Similarly, "RFID labels with temperature sensors" in the cold chain technology of the food logistics process can automatically record the changes in temperature during the delivery and delivery process in order to define the related responsibilities.
Analysis of 4.2 system advantages
The food supply chain management system based on RFID has the following advantages: using the characteristics of RFID, the system can achieve the purpose of food safety and traceability management. Compared with the records of archival tracing, it is more efficient, real-time and convenient, and can provide complete and transparent management in the food supply chain to ensure food safety. Process visualization control, monitoring and tracing. Not only does the relevant staff know the whole process of food "from the farm to the table", and through the network, consumers can also query the complete tracking information of the food purchased.
The system can monitor the pollution at the source of planting and breeding, and can also reflect the additive in the process of production in time, true and accurate. Once the food is mixed with harmful substances or there is a hidden danger in the circulation, it can be transmitted to the control center in the first time, get the reaction in time and take appropriate measures. Put out the hidden dangers of security.
Using the RFID tracking and tracing system, the data after collection and integration can be realized in real time and accurately through the network, so it is easy to do deeper and efficient analysis and research. On this basis, the system can not only respond quickly to the accident, but also use historical data to effectively evaluate the potential hazard of food safety and provide a basis for scientific early warning, so as to prevent and control the combination of food and ensure the safety of food.
In general, the RFID based food supply chain management system can make the food "from the farmland to the table" process more transparent, more controllable, and can also respond quickly to the change of food demand, and improve the integration efficiency of food supply chain information.
4.3 problems of RFID in food supply chain management system
The application of RFID technology in food supply chain management system can bring many advantages, but for some internal reasons, there are still some problems:
(1) the cost problem. Price is a key factor affecting the large-scale application of RFID. Really do single products, whether vegetables or eggs are labeled with RFID tags, will inevitably require a very low price tag, like today's barcode. But at present, the price of RFID tags is relatively high, especially for some small products, such as poultry, vegetables and so on.
(2) the problem of information chain. RFID technology can effectively identify products and related information in the food supply chain, participants' information and so on. For food tracking and tracing, every processing point in the food supply chain is required, not only to identify the products they have been processed, but also to collect the information on the processed food materials and identify all the information on the processed products for the use of the next processor or consumer. This is like a chain of links, any link broken, the whole chain is disconnected, and the link between the supply chain is relatively fragile, which is the biggest problem in the implementation of tracking and tracing. A well structured information platform for food supply chain will play an important role in the integrity and implementation of the information chain.
(3) the problem of the information entry of the electronic label. As the food production cycle is not long, the consumption time limit is short, the variety is complex, and the production unit is numerous, the food supply chain is bound to produce a lot of information, but generally, the larger the storage capacity is, the higher the price is. This involves the screening of information. Taking veterinary medicine as an example, veterinary medicine is a safety index that needs to be considered in the process of animal breeding. The factors that cause this change are veterinary drug variety, disease prevention, use, use time and drug break period. This requires that the key information index be determined in the actual research, and the electronic label should be recorded in order to cope with the safety accidents.
(4) the problem of economic benefit. In the early days of RFID development, RFID has always been widely known as a proprietary technology without any standard error. It is because the RFID industry has a deviation in the understanding of the value of the market. RFID vendors always simply emphasize the cost of RFID labels. There is a popular statement in the industry. When the cost price of each RFID label drops to 5 cents, the application of RFID will reach the critical point of "blowout". Now the cost of RFID tags has dropped to this level. However, the prospect of large-scale application and promotion of RFID technology has not arrived. In fact, since the RFID system consists of three components, such as labels, readers and software, usually a job system (such as the whole logistics chain), there are many sites that need to be used, so the cost of their overall equipment will not be particularly low, and the RFID vendors are not adding weights to the economic benefits, in the mind of the enterprise. The evaluation of RFID will always be more cost-effective than economic balance. Therefore, only by making the market clear and clear about the economic benefits that RFID can bring, can the industry's soaring bottleneck be solved.
Obviously, the wide application of RFID technology still needs to break through many bottlenecks of security, cost and technology, which need further research and development. There are also shortcomings in the system, such as the label records false information, information chain interruption or information loss, and so on, according to the literature reports can be monitored and supported by isotopes, mineral elements, iris and other detection techniques. But in general, RFID is the most suitable technology to be applied to the whole process of food safety monitoring, and the RFID based food supply chain management system has the value of further optimization.