Some important criteria to understand when selecting RFID tags or designing an RFID system. The ISO/IEC 18000 series of standards has seven parts and only deals with air interface protocols. The standard defines the use of communication band interrogators and tags between five frequency pairs.
ISO / IEC 18000-2
This section specifies the air interface communication parameters between the interrogator and tags below 135 kHz (low frequency tag). A protocol, command and method (anti-collision) for detecting one of a plurality of tags and communicating are defined, but implementing anti-collision is optional.
ISO / IEC 18000-3
The standard provides parameters for air interface communications at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. It defines the physical layer, collision management system and protocol values of the RFID system for identification of items operating at 13.56 MHz (high frequency tags).
ISO / IEC 18000-4
The standard defines the communication protocol used in the air interface of RFID devices used at 2.45 GHz frequencies used in project management applications. The standard defines two modes. The first mode is a passive tag as an interlocutor first talk (ITF), and the second mode is a battery assist tag as a tag first talk (TTF) operation.
ISO / IEC 18000-6
The standard describes physical interactions, protocols, and commands between interrogators and tags that operate in the 860 to 960 MHz frequency range (UHF), as well as conflict arbitration schemes for passive RFID systems. The standard describes three incompatible types A, B, and C, where types A and B are rarely used, and type C is equivalent to the EPCglobal Gen 2 standard.
ISO / IEC 18000-7
This section defines the air interface for RFID devices operating as active RF tags in the 433 MHz band used in article management applications. Typical applications operate in a range greater than 1 meter. It was developed for FCC approved read/write active tags. These tags are used by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Universal Postal Union and read over 300 feet.
The standard defines a tag that uses near-field inductive coupling to operate at a 13.56 MHz frequency. These cards are often called proximity cards. Typical applications include identification, security, payments, mass transit, and access control. The ISO 14443 system is designed for a range of about 10 cm (3.94 inches), making it ideal for applications such as vending machines.
ISO 15693 is an ISO standard for proximity cards. It can read from farther distances than the proximity card defined by ISO 14443. The ISO 15693 system operates at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, uses near-field inductive coupling, and provides a maximum reading distance of 3 to 5 feet. This series of products is ideal for applications such as physical access or control of access to parking lots. It can also be used as the basis for applications other than contactless smart cards, such as airline baggage tracking and supply chain management.
EPCGLOBAL / GS1 GEN2
This standard is formally known as the EPC RFID protocol Type 1 Generation 2 UHF RFID protocol for 860-960 MHz communications. It was developed by EPCglobal, Inc. in 2004 and is now GS1, and was approved as ISO 18000-6C in July 2006. It defines the air interface parameters for tags operating in the frequency range of 860-960 MHz and allows the use of different regional frequencies within this range.
There are several versions of this standard, the latest version of Gen2v2 (first introduced in 2013) 2.0.1. (Approved in 2015) introduced several new features for the agreement.
The key Gen2 features are as follows:
---The ability to change the encoding according to the environment The reader changes the encoding method according to the noise in the environment, the Miller subcarrier or FM0. In a low-noise environment, it may use FM0 coding, but it is faster, but as the noise increases, it may switch to the Miller subcarriers. This subcarrier is designed to optimize noise and performance in dense reader environments. This will reduce the number of tags read per second, but allow tags to be read in harsh environments.
---Reader-operated three-mode readers can operate in single, multiple and dense environments. The dense reader environment is designed for enterprise deployment, with hundreds of readers running simultaneously.
---Tag population management provides options, inventory, and access commands for efficient tag reading - For example, you can use wildcard patterns to select a set of tags.
---Longer Termination and Access Password 32-bit long access and termination passwords increase the level of security of data on the tags.
---The forward link data protection tag provides the reader with a randomly generated number to encode the data that the reader sends to the tag.
--- Four sessions of the tag inventory tag can operate in four different sessions at the same time, so four different readers can communicate with tags at the same time without interfering with each other.
--- A more powerful label communication design reduces the possibility of ghosting reads and enters incorrect data into the application.
--- Faster data transfer rates up to 640 Kbps are five times faster than previous standards. Improved tag memory and programmability The tag memory is divided into four banks. The bank may be read-only, written once, and read/written in part. This provides better tag security and application flexibility.
--- The Q algorithm provides a faster tag collision solution and improves the security of communication between tags and readers.
GEN2V2 upgrade to GEN2 (V1) includes
--- The untraceability feature allows partial data to be hidden, restricting access rights and reducing the read range of tags.
--- Supports cryptographic authentication of tags and readers, verification of identity and provenance, and reduces the risk of falsified and unauthorized access.
--- Enhanced user memory in the product life cycle is used to assist in encoding (such as maintaining records).
--- The "non-removable" tag is used for sewing labels of electronic products and sewing labels of garments to indicate that the labels are not easily removed without impairing the intended function of the label products.
EPC Label Data Standard, Version 1.9 (released in July 2014)
The standard defines the EPC tag data format of the 2nd generation tag. It defines how the EPC encodes the tag and how it is coded for the information system layer of the EPC system network. The standard includes a specific coding scheme for the EPC universal identifier (GID). It also defines the coding of 96 other six numbering systems for global trade:
1.SGTIN (serialized GTIN) serializes EAN. UCC Global Trade Item Number
2.SSCC EAN.UCC Series Freight Container Codes
3.GLN EAN.UCC Global Location Number
4.GRAI EAN.UCC Global Returnable Asset Identifier
5.GIAI EAN.UCC Global Personal Asset Identifier
6.Department of Defense US Department of Defense numbers
Licensing is the purchase of products by large organizations from many suppliers around the world. Their goal is to reduce costs by using RFID to create a more efficient supply chain. As with standards, there is no need to follow the mandate, but violations may affect your relationship with the authorized organization - for example, you may not be able to do business with them. All regulations require the use of UHF systems. Almost all of these systems now require the use of second-generation labels (except the U.S. Department of Defense, which uses mostly 433 MHz active RFID tags, while the second-generation passive code is used only for certain applications. ).