Selecting the right label is not a simple task.
It requires a thorough understanding of how tags and interrogators work and an understanding of the business processes performed on the objects to be marked. You must understand the tag and reader specifications and their effect on the tag's performance. Some of the factors considered in the tag selection process include tag type, operating frequency, materials to be tagged, tag mounting method, read range, read rate, tag size, environmental conditions, cost, and mandatory requirements.
Selection of tag frequency depends on the read range requirements, the materials to be tagged and the data rate. Application such as access control and payment systems require a very small read range. In these types of applications, reading tags beyond a few inches creates a security risk, so the reading range must not exceed a few inches. LF and HF tags with shorter read range are ideal for this type of application. When marking the pallet used in the supply chain, a reading range of 5 to 10 feet is required. UHF tags are well suited for this application.
Items containing moisture need to separate items from UHF or microwave tags. At the item level, there is little choice of label placement, and there is less chance of air gaps between labels and objects. In this case, the FDA has approved LF tags for human and animal implantation. The HF and LF tags are ideal for tracking humans and animals because of the high moisture content of living organisms. HF tags with a reading range of 2 to 3 feet are the ideal choice.
Metal objects have special problems when marking. Regardless of the tag frequency, metal objects directly attached to the tag are detuned and do not work properly. If the UHF and microwave tags are attached to metal with small air gaps between tags and objects, they can be easily read. LF and HF tags are more metal-sensitive and require larger air gaps.
The factors that affect the selection of the tag type include read range requirements, sensor requirements, cost, size, weight, and application type. Passive tags are cheaper than semi-passive or active tags. Tag costs should consider the cost relative to the tagged item. For example, a $100 active tag attached to a container is economical, and a 25-cent tag attached to a box of cereals may not be.
Some applications decide which type of tag to use. For example, to monitor the temperature in a refrigerated truck, you need a semi-passive or active tag with a temperature sensor.
In order to monitor the safety and integrity of containers, active tags with intrusion sensors can be used. Reusable handbags or plastic containers for manufacturing or food processing plants can be equipped with semi-passive labels. As these suitcases and containers are recirculated inside the factory, the cost of the tags is not a major issue.
Not only assess environmental conditions within the tags. Under the conditions of the product, the labeling standards in the product may encounter high temperatures and pressures during the manufacture of the product and must be able to withstand these conditions. Your own facility, but it can also be used in any environment in which the tag passes through the entire life cycle. These environmental conditions can affect the read range or read rate of the tag:
1、The substrate may absorb moisture or may become brittle and cracked.
2、Due to moisture or chemicals, the adhesive may not stick to the label and the label may come off the product.
3、The interconnection between the antenna and IC may break due to vibration or repeated bending of the tag.
4、Due to the corrosive effects of chemical substances in the environment, the antenna may become weak.
5、You may need to use packaged labels that are not contaminated by abrasion or chemicals in your environment.
RFID standards compliance
Which standards are open, such as ISO, or they may be proprietary. It is a good practice to follow open and universal standards because more companies manufacture products using these standards rather than proprietary ones. In addition, due to higher output, these products may be cheaper and may provide them with longer support. With the widespread acceptance of the EPC Gen 2 standard (now also ISO 18000-6c), if you want to use UHF, it is best to use Gen 2 products. For more information on standards, see how to choose the right labels - standards and tasks.