How does an RFID system work?
An RFID system usually consists of three parts: an interrogator (or reader), an antenna connected to the reader and a transponder (or tag). Most systems require that the reader transmit a signal first, which is radiated by the antennas. The tag, which is made up of a small microchip and an antenna, is woken up by the reader's signal and explains what it says. Depending on what the tag receives, it transmits its own signal back to the reader. The reader is usually an ID or other stored information. In passive RFID, the tag does not have its own power source, so it collects the energy created by the reader, then sends information back using a technique called backscattering. In an active RFID system, the transponder has its own power source and can transmit data back to the reader.
What is the difference between LF, HF and UHF?
Just as your radio listens to different frequencies to hear different channels, RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency for communication. RFID systems use many different frequencies, but usually the most common are low frequencies (about 125 KHz), high frequencies (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high-frequency or UHF (860-960 MHz). Microwave (2.45 GHz) is also used in some applications. Radio waves behave differently at different frequencies, so you must choose the right frequency for the right application.
How do I know which frequency is right for my application?
Each RFID frequency has its own benefits, which makes it more useful for certain applications than others. Low-frequency RFID has a very short detection range, but the best penetration through water. These tags are usually used for animal tracking or tagging produce. The HF tags have better detection range and can store a lot of information. These labels are used to certify consumables (such as printer ink) or for credit cards and security vouchers because they can store encrypted information. The longest range of ultra-high frequencies allows multiple tags to be read at the same time. UHF is ideal for inventory management or remote inspection of people and objects.
Do all countries use the same frequency?
Which frequencies can be used depending on your country. Some RFID frequencies are more standardized than others. For example, low frequency is usually used between 125-134 KHz, and high frequency is almost always 13.56 MHz. UHF RFID updates, so there is more variability. Each country allots part of the frequency spectrum between 860-960MHz for RFID. For example, in North America, they use 902-928 MHz, but Europe uses 865-868 MHz. The frequency band and regulations governing the use of these bands can be difficult to navigate, but we know the way to go.
Are there any standard for RFID?
Yes. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has established RFID standards for more than 20 years. ISO 15693 and ISO 14443 are well-established HF standards. The EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 standard has been adopted as a global standard (ISO 18000-6C), and ISO 18000-7 is the international standard for active tags operating at 433 MHz.
What is EPC Class 1 Gen 2 (C1G2)?
Gen 2 is the abbreviation of EPCglobal's second-generation EPC air interface protocol (language tags and readers for communications). It is designed to work internationally and has other enhancements, such as an intensive reader mode of operation, that prevent readers from interfering with each other when used close to each other. EPCGlobal is now part of the GS1 standards organization.
What’s the difference between ISO and EPC?
The Electronic Product Code is a standard created by EPCglobal, designed as a global standard for use in many industries. In July 2006, the EPC Gen 2 protocol was approved and adopted by the International Standards Organization as the ISO 18000-6C standard. ISO has created many standards for RFID that deal with both the air-interface protocol and applications for RFID. EPC deals with more than just how tags and readers communicate. EPCglobal has created a suite of standards to govern how EPC data is shared among companies and other organizations.
What is ISO 18000-6?
ISO 18000-6 is an international standard governing the way tags and readers communicate in the UHF spectrum. There are currently three versions: 18000-6A, 18000-6B and 18000-6C. Of these, 18000-6C is by far the most commonly used.